Documents pour «interaction linguistique»

Going into the unknown in science and art

Christian KEYSERS

1h06min12

Scientists must grope into the undefined place beyond the known. So must improvisation theater actorswalking onto the stage with no idea what will happen next. Improvisation theater developed practices thathelp groups of actors create a new scene on the spot, by focusing on mutual support: saying yes to eachothers ideas and bypassing the inner critic that spoils our spontaneity. I’ll describe how as a scientist by dayand improvisation actor by night, I learned from theater how to do better science. The concepts are universaland can apply to unexpected situations across disciplines.

“Quantifying JI” Short talk 1.4 Debate.

Ashley WALTON

23min43

“Quantifying JI” Debate.

“Quantifying JI” Short talk 1.1: Saul Albert - Extemporary movement: an interactional account of partner dance improvisation

Albert SAUL

15min29

Clear empirical distinctions can be drawn between joint improvisation and choreography in dance by exploring the rhythmical coordination of dancers and audience members in a partner dance performance. Novice dancers typically learn footwork patterns or ’basics’ that help them move in time to music together. Experts’ familiarity with basics, as well as conventional variations and set­piece moves form a set of compositional structures that can be linked together to fit complimentary rhythmical patterns in music on the fly. In a ’social dance’ performance such as the Lindy hop, (an African American vernacular jazz dance from which the data for this study is drawn), dancers link together basics with set­piece moves along with moments of joint improvisation. These improvised movements are literally extemporaneous ­ they move out of the temporal regularities of mutually learned patterns and rely on other kinds of interactional resources and methods to achieve coordination. This paper analyses rhythmical coordination between dancers and audience members clapping along to a Lindy hop performance in a naturalistic setting using data drawn from a Youtube video. This empirical starting point enables a tractable analysis of the haptic, visual, and semantic structures and processes used for coordinating extemporaneous dance movements. Audience members’ rhythmical responses to these processes also provides insight into long­standing problems of measurement and meaning in empirical aesthetics. Music and dance psychology tend to emphasise psychophysical measures and post­hoc report as proxies for aesthetic response. This paper proposes new ways to use the observable patterns of rhythmical coordination to explore joint improvisation as part of an interactional sense­making practice

Improvising Interaction

Patrick HEALEY

43min11

Even the most tightly scripted solo performances involve improvisation; the detailed execution of each note or word cannot be completely determined in advance. In joint performances the challenge of co­ordinating the actions of multiple people in real­time becomes even more complex. One response to this challenge has involved appeal to prediction using ‘forward models’ from computational models of action planning. These models involve automatic activation of motor representations of the future perceptual consequences of an unfolding action. Although normally associated with action production, if a person perceiving the action can also produce a forward model they can predict what word or note will come next. An important problem with this approach is that it is by definition conservative. It only works for familiar or rehearsed actions and cannot account for the production of novel or improvised responses. Using case studies from free jazz improvisation and conversation I will illustrate this problem for natural co­ordinated action. Rather than relying on access to pre­established shared representations, constructive engagement in these situations requires mechanisms that enable people to adapt and create new conventions on the fly i.e. improvise. I will argue that the key processes through which this is achieved are the interactional processes of ‘repair’ that we use to detect and deal with things that do not go as expected. These mechanisms are not auxiliary but rather provide the fundamental foundations on which all successful human interaction depends.

Brain to Brain approaches to joint actions

Christian KEYSERS

1h02min40

Joint actions require an ability to understand and predict the actions of others far enough into the future to have time to plan and execute matching motor programs. Here I will review experiments in which we have tracked information flow from one brain to another to show that the motor system seems to play a key role in these functions. I will embed this experimental data in a Hebbian learning model, which posits that predictions are the result of synaptic plasticity during self­observation. Jointly this talk will aim to trigger thoughts on how we can study the involvement of the motor system in coordinating actions across individuals

“Improvising together” Debate

20min18

“Improvising together” Debate

Improvising in Sign Language and Gestures

Ati CITRON

24min53

The Sign Language Theatre Laboratory is a practicebasedartistic research group that began operating in2014 as part of the Grammar of the Body (GRAMBY) Interdisciplinary Research Project led by University ofHaifa linguist Wendy Sandler and funded by the European Research Council. Most of the nine Lab actorsare deaf and hardofhearing,and all of them use Israeli Sign Language (ISL) on a daily basis. We use ISLcombined with expressive gestures and physical theatre in order to develop a form of visual theatre that isaimed at both deaf and hearing spectators. Improvisation is our principal method of operation. We play withthe mimetic component of ISL, highlighting facial expressions and body language, and experimenting withgestures that are normally performed and understood by hearing and deaf people alike. We are inspired bydeaf culture as well as by the work of 20th Century theatre experimentalists such as Meyerhold, Artaud,Grotowski and the Living Theatre. We also draw from the language of two forms of traditional Indian dancetheatre, Kutiyattam and Kathakali, which employ combinations of codified hand movements (mudras) andfacial expressions (rasas) to present the dramaticaction. When our group was introduced to these genres in a workshop, we discovered a surprising affinitybetween the signs of traditional Indian theatre and those used in ISL. From this potpourri we devise ourtheatrical materials. We improvise within certain movement routines and exercises, realizing that free groupimprovisation can only stem from clear, at times even rigid structures and rules. Also necessary, of course,are “comprehensive listening”, which deaf actors practice visually, the ability to lead and be led, and finally,the skill of contributing to a collective creation. These will be demonstrated in my presentation through ananalysis of a few short videos of our work.

There could be ten seconds where everyone is connected and you feel really joined by the same thread and it’s really magical

Caroline CANCE

22min20

Joint actions require an ability to understand and predict the actions of others far enough into the future to have time to plan and execute matching motor programs. Here I will review experiments in which we have tracked information flow from one brain to another to show that the motor system seems to play a key role in these functions. I will embed this experimental data in a Hebbian learning model, which posits that predictions are the result of synaptic plasticity during self­observation. Jointly this talk will aim to trigger thoughts on how we can study the involvement of the motor system in coordinating actions across individuals

Acting together without planning ahead?

Natalie SEBANZ

52min15

Experiments on joint action have given us insights into the mechanisms that allow people to coordinate theiractions with each other, be it making music, dancing, or cooking a dish together. One key finding is thatpeople engage in predictions about their interaction partner’s actions. For example, when someone is aboutto hand over a candle to us, we anticipate the start and the timing of her action. A further key finding is thatpeople systematically modulatetheir actions in ways that make it easier for their interaction partners to predict them. For example, if youdon’t know whether I am about to go left or right, I may veer further to the left to signal where I am going.While these mechanisms work well for joint actionswhere the goals and the tasks that need to be performed are specified in advance, less is known about therole they play in joint improvisation where predicting others’ actions can seem impossible or detrimental. Iwill discuss the benefits and limits of action prediction in joint improvisation.

Deconstructing “joint improvisation”

Steven Brown

58min19

What is “joint” and what is “improvisational” about joint improvisation? The “joint” aspect can be contrastedwith solo improvisation, such as that of a jazz pianist. Even when jazz pianists improvise in the context of anensemble, the arrangement of these improvisationsis often serial, rather than simultaneous: each instrumentalist improvises in turn while other members of theensemble play relatively fixed parts. This is in contrast to forms of improvisation in which two or moreperformers improvise simultaneously, either as separate entities (as occurs in contemporary dance) or as acollective unit (as in 2personimprov acting or contact improvisation). To understand all of these cases, weneed to think about the partnershiparrangement of the performers and their leader/follower dynamic. Next, to explore the “improvisational”aspect, we need to realize that improvisation is, first and foremost, a form of creativity, in particular the typethat occurs online during performance. This is in contrast to online types of creativity that occur away fromperformance – such as brainstormingsessions – as well as to longterm(offline) forms of group creativity, such as technology development or theproduction of an opera. As such, we need to examine established models of improvisation in order tounderstand how joint improvisation might occur. Influential models from the study of jazz include Pressing’smodel of recombining prelearnedstructures, and JohnsonLaird’smodel of rulebasedimprovisation. Finally, I will examine neural aspects of the “joint” and the “improvisational” by describing the results of thefirst twopersonfunctional MRI study of improvisation during partnered movement.

Carrying the Feeling

Erin MANNING

1h03min59

Carrying the Feeling explores autistic Lucy Blackman’s use of “carrying” as an expressive force in herwriting. Continuing to delve into what I have called autistic perception theforce of perception that doesn’tyet parse out the environment but attends to the emergent qualities of an environmentality in act inthispaper I explore how else we might think conceptssuch as volition, intentionality and agency. Of particular interest here is the concept of facilitation, and theimprovisatory nature of what I call a “facilitation of facilitation.” If carrying is a force that already composeswith language, perhaps there is a productive way to consider an environmentally propulsive concept ofagencement as operator in experience rather than the ubiquitous firstpersonaccount of agency?Challenging what I call “neurotypicality as first identity politics,” I propose to open up a discussion of whereelse a conversation of relation might begin.

"Beneficial JI" Debate

16min03

"Beneficial JI" Debate